Potential Benefits of Strabismus Surgery

Numerous peer-reviewed scientific studies have shown the potential functional, and psychosocial benefits of strabismus surgery.
Strabismus surgery should NOT be considered as “just a cosmetic procedure”.  Misaligned eyes are not a normal state.  Misaligned eyes affect one’s ability to see, communicate, gain social acceptance, find a job, make friends, seek a life partner and avert depression.  Therefore strabismus surgery is more proprely referred to as a RECONSTRUCTIVE rather than just cosmetic.
Benefits of Strabismus Surgery (*List compiled by Dr. K. David Epley)
1. Baker, John D. The Value of Adult Strabismus Correction to the Patient. Journal
of AAPOS.2002; 6 (3): 136-40.
2. Ball A, Drummond GT, Pearce WG Unexpected stereo-acuity following surgical
correction of long-standing horizontal strabismus Can J Ophthalmol 1993; 28:217-
3. Beauchamp, George R. The Management of Strabismus in Adults- I. Clinical
Characteristics and Treatment. Journal of AAPOS; 7 (4): 233-240.
4. Beauchamp, George R. The Management of Strabismus in Adults-II. Patient and
Provider Perspectives on the Severity of Adult Strabismus and Outcome
Contributors. Journal of AAPOS 2005; 9 (2): 141-147.
5. Beauchamp GR; Black BC; Coats DK; Enzenauer RW; Hutchinson AK;
Saunders RA; Simon JW; Stager DR; Stager DR; Wilson ME; Zobal-Ratner J;
Felius J. The management of strabismus in adults—III. The effects
on disability. J AAPOS 2005 Oct; 9 (5): 455-9
6. Black BC, Felius J Beauchamp GR. AAPOS Outcomes and Policy Committee.
Intensity/Complexity index of disease for strabismus surgery. J AAPOS 2003; 7
(1): 60-65
7. Burden A. The stigma of strabismus: an Ophthalmologist’s perspective. Arch
Ophthalmol 1994; 112:302.
8. Burke J, CM L, Davis H. Psychological implications of strabismus surgery in
adults. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1997; 34: 159-164.
9. Coats DK, Paysee EA, Towler AJ, Dipboye RL. Impact of large angle horizontal
strabismus on ability to obtain employment. Ophthalmology 2000: 107: 402-405
10. Eustis S, Smith D. Parental understanding of strabismus. J Pediatr Ophthalmol
Strabismus 1987; 24:232-236.
11. Hertle RW. Clinical characteristics of surgically treated adult strabismus. J
Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1998; 35: 138-145
12. Helveston E. The value of strabismus surgery. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus
1984; 21:311-317.
13. Hengstler L. The eye of the beholder. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1991;
14. Herrington D. Visual fields. St. Louis: CB Mosley Co., 1964: 114-116.
15. Hunter D. Benefits of strabismus surgery in patients with one blind eye. Arch
Ophthalmol 1995; 113:404.
16. Jackson S, Harrad RA, Morris M, Rumsey N. The psychosocial benefits of
corrective surgery for adults with strabismus. Br J Ophthalmol 2006; 90:883-8.
17. Johnson C, Keltner J. Incidence of visual field loss in 20,000 eyes and it’s
relationship to driving performance. Arch Ophthalmol 1983; 101:371.
18. Keltner J. Strabismus surgery in adults: functional and psychosocial
implications. Arch Ophthalmol 1993; 112: 599-600.
19. Kraft, SP. Adult strabismus surgery: more than just cosmetic/La chirurgie du
strabisme adulte: bien au-dela’ de l’esthetique. Can J Ophthalmol. 2008 Feb; 43(1):
20. Kushner B, Morton G. Post-operative binocularity in adults with long-standing
strabismus. Ophthalmol 1992; 112:639.
21. Kushner B. Binocular field expansion in adults after surgery for esotropia. Arch
Ophthalmol 1994; 112:639.
22. Lal, G, Holmes JH. Postoperative stereoacuity following realignment for
chronic acquired strabismus in adults. 2002. 6: 233-237.
23. Lion E, O’Neill C, Prager R. Strabismus and children’s personality reactions.
Am J Orthopsychiat 1943; 13:121-124.
24. Lipton E. A study of the psychological effects of strabismus. Psychological
Study Child 1970; 25:146-174.
25 Lipton E. Remarks on the psychological aspects of strabismus. Sight-saving
Rev. 1971; 41:129-138.
26. Maeda M, Sato M, Ohmura T, Miyazaki Y, Wang AH, Awaya S. Binocular
depth-from-motion in infantile and late-onset esotropia patients with poor
stereopsis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999; 40:3031-6.
27. Menon V, Saha J, Tandon R, et al Study of the psychosocial aspects of
strabismus J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2002;39:203-8
28. Mets, Marilyn B. Binocularity Following Surgical Correction of Strabismus in
Adults. Journal of AAPOS 2004; 8:435-438.
29. Metz HS Strabismus surgery is reconstructive surgery J Ped Ophthalmol
Strabismus 1988; 25:263
30. Mojon-Azzi SM, Mojon DS. Opinion of headhunters about the ability of
strabismic subjects to obtain employment. Ophthalmologica. 2007; 221 (6): 430-3.
31. Morris R, Scott W, Dickie C. Fusion after surgical alignment of long-standing
strabismus in adults. Ophthal 1993; 100:135-138
32. Mruthyunjaya P, Simon J, al e. Subjective and objective outcomes of strabismus
surgery in children. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1996; 33:167-170.
33. Nelson L. Current concepts in Ophthalmology. 1994: 351-354.
34. Nelson LB Adult Strabismus Surgery is Really Reconstructive Surgery 1999
Year Book of Ophthalmology p. 181
35. Nelson LB, Wagner RS. Strabismus Surgery: simply cosmetic? J Pediatr
Ophthalmol Strabismus 1997; 34: 139.
36 Olitsky, SE, Sudesh S, Graziano A, Hamblen J, Brooks SE, Shaha SH. The
negative psychosocial impact of strabismus in adults. J AAPOS 1999; 3: 209-211
37. Pratt- Johnson J, Tillison G. Suppression in strabismus: An update. Brit J
Ophthalmol 1984; 68:174.
38. Rosenbaum AL. The goal of strabismus surgery is not cosmetic. Arch
Ophthalmol 1999; 117:250.
39. Satterfield D, Keltner J, Morrison T. The psychological aspects of strabismus
study. Arch Ophthalmol 1993; 111:1100.
40. Scott WE, Kutschke PJ, Lee WR. 20th annual Frank Costenbader Lecture–
adult strabismus. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1995; 32:348-52.
41. Small R. Functional vs cosmetic ophthalmologic defects. Arch Ophthalmol
1991; 109; 1194-1195.
42. Tolchin J, Lederman M. Congenital (infantile) esotropia: psychiatric aspects. J
Pediatric Ophthalmol Strabismus 1978.
43. Umazume F, Ohtsuki H, Hasebe S. Predictors of postoperative binocularity in
adult strabismus. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1997; 41:414-421.
44. Uretmen O, Egrelmez S, Kose S, Pamukcu K, Akkin C, Palamar M. Negative
social bias against children with strabismus. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2003 Apr; 81
(2): 138-42.
45. Wortham E, Greenwald M. Expanded binocular peripheral visual fields
following surgery for esotropia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1989; 26:109
46. Lukman H, Kiat J, Ganesan A, BPsych(Hons), Chua WL, Khor KL, Choong YF. Negative social reaction to strabismus in school children ages 8-12 years. Journal of AAPOS, 2011 June; v15, n3: 238-40.